Rare Pulmonology News

Disease Profile

Choroideremia

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Adolescent

ICD-10

H31.2

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

CHM; Progressive tapetochoroidal dystrophy; TCD

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Eye diseases

Summary

Choroideremia is a genetic condition that causes vision loss. This disorder typically affects males. The first symptom is usually impairment of night vision (night blindness), which can occur in childhood. People with this disorder also experience narrowing of the field of vision (tunnel vision) and decrease in the ability to see details (visual acuity). The vision problems are due to loss of cells in the retina (light sensitive part of the eye) and choroid (blood vessels in the eye). The vision issues tend to get worse over time and usually lead to blindness in late adulthood. The rate and degree of vision loss differs for each person. Choroideremia is caused by spelling mistakes (mutations) in the CHM gene and is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern.[1][2]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal electroretinogram
0000512
Abnormality of retinal pigmentation
0007703
Myopia
Close sighted
Near sighted
Near sightedness
Nearsightedness

[ more ]

0000545
Nyctalopia
Night blindness
Night-blindness
Poor night vision

[ more ]

0000662
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Progressive visual loss
Progressive loss of vision
Progressive vision loss
Progressive visual impairment
Slowly progressive visual loss
Vision loss, progressive
Visual loss, progressive

[ more ]

0000529
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Chorioretinal atrophy
0000533
Chorioretinal degeneration
0200065
Choroideremia
0001139
Constriction of peripheral visual field
Limited peripheral vision
0001133
X-linked dominant inheritance
0001423
X-linked inheritance
0001417

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

    Organizations

    Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

    Organizations Supporting this Disease

      Organizations Providing General Support

        Learn more

        These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

        Where to Start

          In-Depth Information

          • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
          • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
          • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
          • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
            Orphanet
            Orphanet
          • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Choroideremia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

            References

            1. Choroideremia. Genetics Home Reference. 2008; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/choroideremia. Accessed 4/22/2011.
            2. Choroideremia. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/choroideremia/.