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Disease Profile

Familial hypercholesterolemia

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA, TYPE II; Hyperlipoproteinemia type IIA; Hyper-low density-lipoproteinemia;

Summary

?xml:namespace prefix = o /Familial hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterized by very high levels of cholesterol in the blood due to mutations in the LDLR gene. People with hypercholesterolemia have a high risk of developing a form of heart disease called coronary artery disease, as well as health problems related to the buildup of excess cholesterol in other tissues (e.g., in the tendons and skin). Familial hypercholesterolemia tends to be passed through families in an autosomal dominant fashion. There are other hereditary forms of hypercholesterolemia caused by mutations in the APOB, LDLRAP1, or PCSK9 gene. However, most cases of high cholesterol are not caused by a single inherited condition, but result from a combination of lifestyle choices and the effects of variations in many genes.[1]

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms in individuals with the autosomal dominant form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), also called the heterozygous form, may include:[2]

Men who have FH may have heart attacks in their 40s to 50s, and 85% of men with the disorder have a heart attack by age 60. Affected women may have heart attacks in their 50s and 60s.[3]

Individuals with the rare, autosomal recessive form of FH (also called homozygous FH) develop xanthomas beneath the skin over their elbows, knees and buttocks as well as in the tendons at a very early age, sometime in infancy.[3] In individuals with this form of FH, heart attacks and/or death may occur before age 30, sometimes in young children if they are not aggressively treated.[3][2]

Treatment

The overall goal of treatment for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is to lower the risk for atherosclerosis (build-up of plaque in the arteries) by lowering the LDL cholesterol levels in the blood stream. The first step in treatment for individuals with the heterozygous form (also called the autosomal dominant form) is changing the diet to reduce the total amount of fat eaten. This may be accomplished by limiting the amount of beef, pork, and lamb in the diet; cutting out butter, whole milk, fatty cheeses and oils; and eliminating egg yolks, organ meats and other sources of saturated fat from animals. Dietary counseling is often recommended to help individuals change their eating habits. Exercise and weight loss may also help in lowering cholesterol levels.

Drug therapy is also often necessary lifestyle changes may not be enough to lower cholesterol levels. Several different cholesterol-lowering medications may be used alone or in combination; they may include statinsbile acid sequestrants, ezetemibe, niacin, gemfibrozil, and fenofibrate.

Individuals with the more severe, homozygous form of FH (also called the autosomal recessive form) need more aggressive therapies to treat their significantly elevated levels of cholesterol. Drug therapy is often not effective enough at lowering LDL cholesterol levels. Therefore, individuals with this form may need periodical LDL apheresis, a procedure that removes LDL from the blood. In some cases, major surgery such as a liver transplant is necessary.[4]

Management Guidelines

  • The NORD Physician Guide for Familial hypercholesterolemia was developed as a free service of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and it's medical advisors. The guides provide a resource for clinicians about specific rare disorders to facilitate diagnosis and treatment of their patients with this condition.

    FDA-Approved Treatments

    The medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.

    Organizations

    Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

    Organizations Supporting this Disease

      Organizations Providing General Support

        Learn more

        These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

        Where to Start

        • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
        • MedlinePlus Genetics contains information on Familial hypercholesterolemia. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
        • The National Human Genome Research Institute's (NHGRI) website has an information page on this topic. NHGRI is part of the National Institutes of Health and supports research on the structure and function of the human genome and its role in health and disease.
        • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

          In-Depth Information

          • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
          • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) lists the subtypes and associated genes for Familial hypercholesterolemia in a table called Phenotypic Series. Each entry in OMIM includes a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
          • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Familial hypercholesterolemia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

            Selected Full-Text Journal Articles

              References

              1. Hypercholesterolemia. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). 2007; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=hypercholesterolemia. Accessed 10/22/2013.
              2. Familial Hypercholesterolemia. NORD. July 25, 2011; https://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/811/viewAbstract. Accessed 10/22/2013.
              3. Learning About Familial Hypercholesterolemia. National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). December 26, 2013; https://www.genome.gov/25520184.
              4. Learning About Familial Hypercholesterolemia. NHGRI. March 23, 2011; https://www.genome.gov/25520184#al-4. Accessed 10/22/2013.

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