Rare Pulmonology News

Disease Profile

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Infancy

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ICD-10

Q82.4

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

HED; Ectodermal dysplasia, hypohidrotic; Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia;

Categories

Skin Diseases

Summary

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a genetic skin disease. Common symptoms include sparse scalp and body hair, reduced ability to sweat, and missing teeth. HED is caused by mutations in the EDA, EDAR, or EDARADD genes. It may be inherited in an X-linked recessive, autosomal recessive, or autosomal dominant manner depending on the genetic cause of the condition. The X-linked form is the most common form. The forms have similar signs and symptoms, however the the autosomal dominant form tends to be the mildest. Treatment of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia may include special hair care formulas or wigs, measures to prevent overheating, removal of ear and nose concretions, and dental evaluations and treatment (e.g., restorations, dental implants, or dentures).[1]

Diagnosis

In most cases, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia can be diagnosed after infancy based upon the physical features in the affected child. Genetic testing may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis. Other reasons for testing may include to identify carriers or for prenatal diagnosis.[1]

Clinical testing is available for detection of disease causing mutations in the EDA, EDAR, and EDARADD genes.[1] Those interested in pursuing genetic testing are encouraged to consult with a health care provider or a genetics professional to learn more about available testing options.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

    Treatment

    There is no specific treatment for HED. The condition is managed by treating the various symptoms. For patients with abnormal or no sweat glands, it is recommended that they live in places with air conditioning at home, school and work. In order to maintain normal body temperature, they should frequently drink cool liquids and wear cool clothing. Dental defects can be managed with dentures and implants. Artificial tears are used to prevent cornea damage for patients that do not produce enough tears. Surgery to repair a cleft palate is also helpful in improving speech and facial deformities.[2][3]

    Organizations

    Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

    Organizations Supporting this Disease

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

      • The New Zealand Dermatolgical Society's Web site has information on ectodermal dysplasia. Click on the link above to view this information page.
      • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
      • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

        In-Depth Information

        • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
        • Medscape Reference provides information on ectodermal dysplasias. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free
        • MeSH® (Medical Subject Headings) is a terminology tool used by the National Library of Medicine. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

          References

          1. Wright JT, Grange DK, Richter MK. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia. GeneReviews. June 13, 2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1112/. Accessed 1/21/2014.
          2. Wright JT, Grange DK, Richter MK. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia. Gene Reviews. 2006; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=gene&part=x-hed.
          3. Ectodermal Dysplasia. DermNet NZ. 2009; https://www.dermnetnz.org/hair-nails-sweat/ectodermal-dysplasia.html.

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