Rare Pulmonology News

Disease Profile

Leishmaniasis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 1 000 000

331 - 2,979

US Estimated

1-9 / 1 000 000

514 - 4,622

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages

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ICD-10

B55.0 B55.1 B55.2 B55.9

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Kala-azar; Visceral leishmaniasis (subtype); Cutaneous leishmaniasis (subtype)

Categories

Parasitic diseases

Summary

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The most common are cutaneous and visceral. The cutaneous type causes skin sores. The visceral type affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver and bone marrow. People with this form usually have fever, weight loss, and an enlarged spleen and liver. Visceral disease can be deadly without proper treatment. Leishmaniasis is found in parts of the Middle East, Central America, South American, Asia, Africa, and southern Europe. Most of these countries are in the tropics and subtropics. It is possible but very unlikely to get this disease in the United States.[1]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal bleeding
Bleeding tendency
0001892
Abnormal macrophage morphology
0004311
Abnormal oral mucosa morphology
Abnormality of lining of mouth
0011830
Hepatomegaly
Enlarged liver
0002240
Lymphadenopathy
Swollen lymph nodes
0002716
Night sweats
0030166
Pancytopenia
Low blood cell count
0001876
Papule
0200034
Recurrent fever
Episodic fever
Increased body temperature, episodic
Intermittent fever

[ more ]

0001954
Rhinitis
Nasal inflammation
0012384
Skin plaque
0200035
Skin ulcer
Open skin sore
0200042
Splenomegaly
Increased spleen size
0001744
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Anemia
Low number of red blood cells or hemoglobin
0001903
Arthralgia
Joint pain
0002829
Elevated hepatic transaminase
High liver enzymes
0002910
Hypoalbuminemia
Low blood albumin
0003073
Increased circulating antibody level
0010702
Pallor
0000980
Weight loss
0001824
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Anorexia
0002039
Fatigue
Tired
Tiredness

[ more ]

0012378
Leukopenia
Decreased blood leukocyte number
Low white blood cell count

[ more ]

0001882
Thrombocytopenia
Low platelet count
0001873

Treatment

FDA-Approved Treatments

The medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.

  • Amphotericin B Liposomal(Brand name: AmBisome®) Manufactured by Astellas Pharma US, Inc.
    FDA-approved indication: Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.
    National Library of Medicine Drug Information Portal
  • miltefosine(Brand name: Impavido) Manufactured by Paladin Therapeutics, Inc.
    FDA-approved indication: Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania donovani; cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania guyanensis, and Leishmania panamensis; and mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis.
    National Library of Medicine Drug Information Portal

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • You can obtain information on this topic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC is recognized as the lead federal agency for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States.
  • DermNet NZ is an online resource about skin diseases developed by the New Zealand Dermatological Society Incorporated. DermNet NZ provides information about this condition.
  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Leishmaniasis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Leishmaniasis. MedlinePlus. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/leishmaniasis.html. Accessed 7/6/2011.