Rare Pulmonology News

Disease Profile

Meconium aspiration syndrome

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Infancy

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ICD-10

P24.0

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

MAS

Categories

Lung Diseases

Summary

Meconium aspiration syndrome is a serious condition in which a newborn breathes a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid into the lungs around the time of delivery. This can cause breathing difficulties due to swelling (inflammation) in the baby's lungs after birth. Treatment may include suctioning the newborn's mouth as soon as the head emerges during delivery, deep suctioning of the windpipe, antibiotics to treat infection, oxygen to keep blood levels normal, and radiant heat to maintain body temperature. In severe cases, the baby may need assistance breathing (ventilator).[1]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal heart rate variability
0031860
Caesarian section
0011410
Fetal distress
0025116
Postterm pregnancy
0031169
Respiratory distress
Breathing difficulties
Difficulty breathing

[ more ]

0002098
Transient pulmonary infiltrates
0005828
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Aspiration pneumonia
0011951
Atelectasis
Partial or complete collapse of part or entire lung
0100750
Hypoxemia
Low blood oxygen level
0012418
Intrauterine growth retardation
Prenatal growth deficiency
Prenatal growth retardation

[ more ]

0001511
Maternal diabetes
gestational diabetes
0009800
Maternal hypertension
0008071
Meconium stained amniotic fluid
0012420
Neonatal asphyxia
0012768
Pneumomediastinum
0025421
Pneumothorax
Collapsed lung
0002107
Premature rupture of membranes
0001788
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Increased blood pressure in blood vessels of lungs
0002092
Wheezing
0030828
1%-4% of people have these symptoms
Encephalopathy
0001298
Pulmonary insufficiency
0010444

Cause

Meconium is the term used for the early feces passed by a newborn soon after birth. In some cases, the baby passes the meconium while still inside the uterus. This most often happens when babies are under stress because they are not getting enough blood and oxygen. Once the meconium has passed into the surrounding amniotic fluid, the baby may breathe meconium into the lungs. This may happen while the baby is still in the uterus or immediately following birth. Some of the factors that may cause stress on the baby before birth include:[1]

  • Decreased oxygen immediately before or during the birthing process
  • Difficult or lengthy labor and delivery
  • Delivery that occurs past the due date
  • High blood pressure in the pregnant mother
  • Diabetes in the pregnant mother

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
  • The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library provides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Meconium aspiration syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Lee KG. Meconium aspiration syndrome. MedlinePlus. 2009; https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001596.htm. Accessed 1/12/2012.

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